Preparing the Soil
In order to get the best results with your new organic garden, you'll want to make sure the soil is properly conditioned. You have to eat, and so do plants, so make sure your veggies get lots of fresh nutrients. Good healthy soil helps build up strong, productive plants. Chemical soil treatments can not only seep into your food, but they can also harm the beneficial bacteria, worms and other microbes in the soil.
The best way to gauge the quality of your soil is to get it tested. You can get a home testing kit, or better, send a sample to your local agricultural extension office. For a modest fee you'll get a complete breakdown of pH and nutrient levels, as well as treatment recommendations (be sure to tell them you're going organic). That way you can tailor your gardening program. Typically, it's best to test in the fall, and apply any organic nutrients before winter.
Even if you don't have time for testing, you'll want to make sure your soil has plenty of humus -- the organic matter, not the similarly named Mediterranean spread. According to 1000 Gardening Questions & Answers, you'll want to mix in compost, leaf and grass clippings and manure. Manure should be composted, unless you aren't going to harvest or plant anything for two months after application. Preferably, get your manure from local livestock that have been organically and humanely raised -- and never use manure from animals that eat meat.
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